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Citing Sources Guide

Assists in the citation and referencing of styles used at Northwestern

What is Turabian Style?

Based on Kate L. Turabian’s Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Turabian citation style presents two basic documentation systems, notes-bibliography style (or simply bibliography style) and parenthetical citations–reference list style (or reference list style). These styles are essentially the same as those presented in The Chicago Manual of Style with slight modifications for the needs of student writers.

Notes/Bibliography style is used widely in literature, history, and the arts. This style presents bibliographic information in footnotes or endnotes and, usually, a bibliography.

Material

Note

Bibliographic Entry

Books in print

1. Wendy Doniger, Splitting the Difference (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 65.

Doniger, Wendy. Splitting the Difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

An article in a print journal

8. John Maynard Smith, “The Origin of Altruism,” Nature 393 (1998): 639.

Smith, John Maynard. “The Origin of Altruism.” Nature 393 (1998): 639–40.

An article in an electronic journal

33. Mark A. Hlatky et al., "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (2002), http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. "Quality-of-Life and Depressive Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women after Receiving Hormone Therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6, 2002). http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

A website

11. Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees, “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach,” Evanston Public Library, http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000–2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

 

Reference list style has long been used in the physical, natural, and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in parentheses in the text by author’s last name and date of publication. The parenthetical citations are amplified in a list of references, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Material

Parenthetical  Citation

Reference List

Books in print

(Doniger 1999, 65)

Doniger, Wendy. 1999. Splitting the difference. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

An article in a print journal

(Smith 1998, 639)

Smith, John Maynard. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393: 639–40.

An article in an electronic journal

(Hlatky et al. 2002)

Hlatky, Mark A., Derek Boothroyd, Eric Vittinghoff, Penny Sharp, and Mary A. Whooley. 2002. Quality-of-life and depressive symptoms in postmenopausal women after receiving hormone therapy: Results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 287, no. 5 (February 6). http://jama.ama-assn.org/issues/v287n5/rfull/joc10108.html#aainfo (accessed January 7, 2004).

A website

(Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees)

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. http://www.epl.org/library/strategic-plan-00.html (accessed June 1, 2005).

(Source: Official Turabian Guide website)