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While the library building is closed until further notice, the Library's online services and resources continue to be available to Northwestern students, faculty, and staff.

Please see this Guide to Modified Services for more information.

Citing Sources Guide

Assists in the citation and referencing of styles used at Northwestern.

About this guide

The purpose of this LibGuide is to assist with citation and referencing in various formats used at Northwestern.

APA help

See the APA Style Tips page and the APA Reference Examples page if you are citing sources using APA style.

MLA help

This guide contains tips and examples of citing and referencing various resources.

Chicago Style

This guide contains tips and examples of referencing various resources in footnotes and bibliographies.

Turabian Style

This guide contains helpful examples of Turabian, which is a variation of Chicago Style.

SBL help

See this guide to get help with SBL style.

IEEE Style

See this page to access the IEEE Editorial Style Manual.

Other citation help

There is also help available at the Reference desk of the Berntsen Library.

Other writing help

For general writing help, see the Writing Center webpage to make an appointment.